Friday, February 21, 2020

Write an annotation entry consisting of a Citation, a brief Summary, Annotated Bibliography

Write an annotation entry consisting of a Citation, a brief Summary, and a short paragraph Evaluation of the text below - Annotated Bibliography Example Research by Kolbert in four continents shows that human activities threaten all species that inhabit the planet. According to Kolbert, large numbers of plants and animals are dying. Kolbert says in that â€Å"Up to 50 percent of all living species are in danger of disappearing by the end of the century.† The information in the video is vital because the balance of the ecosystem is declining rapidly. The different species that inhabit the earth are the reason for the existence of sustainable environment for all of us. Activities such as â€Å"†¦fossil fuel consumption, ocean acidification, pollution, deforestation, forced migration†¦Ã¢â‚¬  among others, kill plant and animals (Kolbert n.p.). As a result, a harsh environment that cannot support life develops. The information in the video is sensitive to a balanced environmental existence that every individual desire. To sum up, the creation of sustainable communities through green action plans is an imperative key for human survival. The sustainability is achievable through reducing overreliance on fossil fuel, minimizing the levels of carbonates and sulphates in oceans, and encouraging afforestation. Land reclamation in areas where pollution due to human activities is also an important gesture of commitment to restore a safer environment for all species. As such, all green movement societies should raise their eyebrows and condemn human activities that disrupt the balance of the

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Exploring a Work of Art Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Exploring a Work of Art - Essay Example The subject, color, style, and theme successfully depict the main tenets common during the Romantic Age. A formalist analysis of the work may lead to a better understanding of the work and the message being conveyed by the artist. In addition, some research on what other people have to say about the work will help attain a complete analysis. Background of the Author Caspar David Friedrich was a German painter born to a poor family in 1774 in Greifswald, Germany. Despite poverty, the artist attended formal art study with artist Johann Gottfried Quistorp, who conducted art lessons mostly outdoors. This training and exposure to outdoor life helped Friedrich to master the local color and environment thus helped the artist master the art of landscape. According to Vaughan (65), Friedrich’s paintings, which generally reveal Romantic Age ideas, make him â€Å"one of the most important artists† during his time. â€Å"The Monk by the Sea,† an oil on canvass by Caspar Davi d Friedrich in 1809. Analysis of Form A formalist analysis of the color, space, line and texture could lead to discovering the artist’s overall craftsmanship. Color can be considered the most important element in the painting because it is through color that the artist achieves meaning. Notably, contrast is applied with the use of white against the dark green background and the black suit of the monk. This contrast reflects the theme of confusion but considering that the white takes a larger space than the dark colors, taken by the white color, the theme of good versus evil may be implied as darkness may be associated with evil (Guerin 34). Minimalism, a characteristic of Romantic art, is applied with the minimal use of colors. Through minimalism, the artist achieves focus and emotionality. Adding in several colors would have made the painting look less gloomy, hence distorting the message. Importantly, Friedrich used dark green instead of blue for the sea. This may be a litt le questionable considering the usual color of the sea. Nevertheless, the dark emerald green color implies the depth and mystery of the sea. It could also mean unusualness in the life of the monk. Depicting the sea with great darkness, Friedrich made it a point to limit this part to at least one-eighths of the canvass. This allows the other images, such as the sky, the land, and the monk to take form, while it allows the purpose of showing the location of the monk at the same time. Specifically, the center clouds where a rich combination of colors is applied, capture the motion of light breaking into the darkness and at the same time the darkness eating up the light. Such drama found in nature suggests some Romantic thoughts that could likewise draw out sentimentality from the audience. Space is also another important element. The whole image can be divided horizontally into three different parts, namely, the sky, the sea, and the land. The great expanse of the sky, which covers at least â€Å"five-sixths of the canvass† (Web Gallery of Art, n.d.), attracts attention considering the light it sheds on the whole image. Through devoting much space to the sky, the artist achieves artistic drama, which is very typical of the Romantic Movement. On the issue of emphasis, Friedrich attains emphasis with the proper use of space as he allows a larger part of the canvass to be plain. If he made the figure of the

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Friendliness and perception of social support

Friendliness and perception of social support Generally, this study investigate whether local student perceived more social support as compared to out-of-state student and to examine the relationship between friendliness and social support. A total of 120 participants aged between 17 to 24 years was surveyed. The participants are local college student (n=30 males and n=30 females) and out-of-state college student (n=30 males and n=30 females) from the Sunway University College. The instrument used to gather the data are Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) (Zimet et al., 1988) and Friendliness-Unfriendliness Scale (SACRAL) (Reisman Billingham, 1989). It is found that local student received more social support as compared to out-of-state student. Moreover, a very significant positive relationship was also found between friendliness and total perceived social support. Students these days face difficulty in college or even university as it is hard for them to adapt to new environment, subjects and also friends, hence it will be difficult especially for the international student to adjust themselves in another country due to so many factor that can affect their level of stress as compared to the local students (Mista, Crist Burant, 2003). However, researchers (e.g. Cohen Wills, 1985; Baron and Kenny, 1986), noted that social support helps to buffer stress. As defined by Lahey (2007, p.510), social support is a form of support given by any family members and friends given that they advise or lend a hand to an individual whom needs reveal their personal feeling. Cohen (1982) categorizes social network, perceived social support and supportive behavior under social support, where the three categories are inter-related such that perceived social support is defined as perceived social support refers to the function of social relationship as the perception that social relationship will (if necessary) provide resources such as emotional support or information and supportive behaviours refer to the mobilization and receipt of behaviors intended to aid persons in the face of stressful events (p.109). In addition, Demaray and Malecki (2002) defined perceived social support as a type of general support or specific supportive behaviors from any of their friends, family or relatives given that they may help to buffer the unpleasant feeling or emotio n of an individual. Researchers for this study, defined local student as student who are brought up by their parents or guardian and live in the state of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia whereas, out-of-state student is to be define as the student who are brought up in other states in Malaysia (excluding Selangor and Kuala Lumpur) or student who are from other country also known as international student but studying in Malaysia. As for friendliness, it is defined by Reisman (1983) saying that friendliness is a construct or dispositional tendency or attitude that implies kindliness, cordiality, and goodwill (p. 405). Reisman also added that friendliness is also a belief or feelings that people have about themselves, as well as to overt behaviors, such as smiling, greeting, and cooperating(p. 406). Past research, Misra, Crist and Burant (2003), found that International students whom are studying in American universities faces more problem such as adjusting and getting use to a new environment. The international student feel stressed up and uncomfortable for example, they have to adapt new culture and even new subject. At the same time, they also have workload that needs to be complete within a time period therefore this also causes stress. Therefore a study was carried out with a total sample of 143 participants whom are students from Africa, Asia, Middle East and America and it was found that social support do help buffer stress. Social support can act as a buffer for in many aspects. According to Demaray and Malecki (2002) social support is said to become an important role in students life because it is found that students with low perceived support obtained significantly higher scores on problematic behavior (p. 238). It is also noted by Rodriguez et al. (2003), that a person can be influence strongly by anyone that is not a family member of that person as it has been verify by research. However, it is proven that individual with social support will be able to deal with their unpleasant situation better than those individual who do not have social support (Rodrigeuz et al., 2003). In addition, social support is also important to buffer stress for college student (Cohen Wills, 1985) Nonetheless, opposing opinion was stated in Taylor et al. (2004) that it is more beneficial for social support which are not make use of rather than social support that are being utilized due to the result found by Wethington and Kessler (as cited in Taylor et al., 2004) that perceived social support was a stronger predictor of adjustment to stressful life events than received support (p. 355). Another result was found by Boron and Kenny (1986), indicating that the level of stress is affecting an individual social support that is received. At the same time, friendliness is also related to well being (Gill, 2008) when a place have more friendly people a children well being can be improve and through that the children will receive more social support. In addition, friendly people will gain more support as seen in Sullivan (1999), shows that friendly student will be able to blend in a group and help each other and provide support. Besides, Berndt and Perry (1986) also found that friendship helps when an individual is in a stressful situation and social support from friends is gain. This present study will look into which group of student: local student and out-of-state student will receive more social support and also to study from who the social support is receive from: family; friends; significant other. According to Eker, Arkar and Yaldiz (2000) the term significant other is defined as somebody outside ones family and friends (e.g. fiancà © (e), boy/girlfriend, relative, neighbor, doctor). Simultaneously, friendliness will also be analyze with social support to examine whether is there a significant relationship between friendliness and social support. Hypothesis The first hypothesis for this study is local student receive more social support as compared to out-of-state student. The second hypothesis for the study is there is a positive relationship between friendliness and social support. Method Study Design Survey design consists of two types of method which are questionnaire and interview. However questionnaire was picked to conduct the survey instead of interview because the research involves a large number of participants. The questionnaire consists of two types of scale; Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) (Zimet et al., 1988) and Friendliness Unfriendliness Scale (SACRAL) (Resiman Billingham, 1989). For the first hypothesis, the dependent variable is perceived social support and the independent variable is the type of student; local student or out-of-state student. Whereas for the second hypothesis, the dependent variable is friendliness and the independent variable is social support. Participants A total number of one hundred and twenty students from the Sunway University College were surveyed (refer to Table 1). The participants comprised of 60 males and 60 females. For each gender, 30 students are local student and another 30 are out-of-state student. The students surveyed are 17 years old to 24 years old (M=19.39, SD=1.34) (not shown in table). Most of the participants are Chinese with a total percentage of 62.5% whereas 10.8% are Malay, 7.5% are Indian and 19.2% are others. However, the highest percentage for the religion is Buddhist with a percentage of 45.0%. Whereas the percentages for each of remaining religion of the participants are 14.2% Muslim, 26.7% Christian, 5% Hindu and the remaining 5% are others. The highest educational level achieved by most of the students is secondary school and diploma or equivalent with a percentage of 25.8% and 45%, whereas 28.3% had achieved a bachelor degree or equivalent and only 0.8% had achieved a postgraduate degree (master/docto ral level). Students were selected to be the participant for this survey because the research is studying about local students and out-of-state students therefore out-of-state students comprise of international student or student from other states in Malaysia besides Selangor and Kuala Lumpur and the local student are those who are raised up in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. Table 1 Demographics Demographics Number Valid percent Gender Male Female 60 60 50.0 50.0 Hometown Local Out-of-state 60 60 50.0 50.0 Race Malay Chinese Indian Others 13 75 9 23 10.8 62.5 7.5 19.2 Religion Muslim Buddhist Hindu Christian Others 17 59 6 32 6 14.2 49.2 5.0 26.7 5.0 Highest level of education achieved Secondary School Diploma or equivalent Bachelor degree or equivalent Postgraduate degree (Master/doctoral level) 31 54 34 1 25.8 45.0 28.3 0.8 Note. Percent are calculated using SPSS. Measurement The measurements used to measure perceived social support in this study is Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) which was design by Zimet, Dahlem, Zimet and Farley in 1988 where scores are obtained from a 7-point Likert scale beginning with 1 for disagree very strongly to 7 for agree very strongly . This scale contain 12-item that measures three types of perceive social support from family, friends and significant other. For family, it has four item that are item 3, 4, 8 and 11, whereas friends has seven items which are item 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9 and 12 and for significant other, it has 4 items but three item are the same item for friends which are item 1, 2, 5 and 10. Every item is summed up by itself and each total are then divided among the number of items it consist. Lastly, the score obtain will show the level of perceived social support, thus a higher score obtained shows that more perceived social support gain. Zimet et al. noted that MSPSS has good test-retes t reliability and known to have an outstanding scale due to its constant alphas (0.91) overall and the subscales tend to have alpha ranging from 0.90 to 0.95. Since it has a achieve a good reliability therefore, the validity for construct validity is at the same level as the reliability, whereas both factorial and concurrent validity is also excellent when it is associate with depression and with degree of coronary artery disease in type A patients (inverse correlation). The second type of measurement used is Friendliness Unfriendliness Scale (SACRAL) (Reisman Billingham, 1989). SACRAL is used because it measures friendliness as related to self-concept, accessibility, rewardingness, and alternation and also unfriendliness. As for this scale, it is made up of 20-item instrument out of 40-item since friendliness is rather complicated to be measure since it associate with one particular person skills and beliefs and it is able to distinguish between high-SACRAL and low-SACRAL through the sum of the scores. It is divided into four different subscales that comprise of self-concept, S (item 1, 5, 9, 13, 17), accessibility, AC (items 2, 6, 10, 14, 18), rewarding, R (items 3, 7, 11, 15, 19), and alienation, AL (items 4, 8, 12, 16, 20). To obtain the friendliness scores, all four subscale item are added up together. Moreover, item 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, and 19 has to be score differently because they are in positive direction, so if 0 and 1 are rated, i t will be 0. Whereas for the other item, reverse scoring will be done, so if 3 and 4 are rated, it will be recoded as 0 instead. Reisman (1983) noted that, the reliability of SACRAL may obscure in information and the prudence of maintaining subscale scores is supported after being tested with coefficient alpha. However, the study done by Reisman for concurrent validity, shows that there is an agreement of 81% concerning the friends in the direction of endorsement of the items, which is to say that on about 8out of 10items one friend correctly indicated whether the other agreed or disagreed. According to Reisman and Billingham for the construct validity, 94% agreement rate between subjects SACRAL scores and the assessment of raters of subject responses in a laboratory setting. Procedure This study is assign as a group research and 120 questionnaires were divided among six of the group member. Each and every member approaches approximately 20 students in Sunway University College. Convenience sampling a type of non-random sampling (Mcburney White, 2007, pp. 257) is used because the participant needed are students therefore it is easy and simple for the data to be collected since we are studying in a college where we can approach to the participant easily and it also not time consuming. Besides, the student approached were generally in the college cafeteria, foyer and the library, which mean the students are having their breaks, so they will have time to answer the questionnaire. First of all, a consent form is given to each of the participant to allow them understand about the research conducting by our group, to know roughly how long will it take up their time to answer the questionnaire and to inform them that their personal information will be kept private and confidential then it come along with a set of questionnaire that consist of 12 social support item and 20 item that measures friendliness. A demographic form is enclose together with the questionnaire that contain personal information like age, gender, ethnicity, education level achieved, religion and hometown. After filling up, the questionnaires are collected from the participant to be analyzed. Result The aim of the t-test analysis is to help measure whether local student perceived more social support or vice versa. T-test is used because it analyzes on one categorical variable and one continuous variable plus t-test is also used because the independent variable for the first hypothesis is a two level independent variable. In addition, it also determines whether there is a statistically significant difference for both the variable (Pallant, 2007, p. 232). As for the Correlation analysis, it will determine whether there is a positive or negative relationship between the two variables and its strength (Pallant, 2007, p. 126). Hence, this fits for the second hypothesis since the research is to find out about the relationship between friendliness and social support. Using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) data analysis program to test on both t-test and correlation coefficient for the two hypotheses, the results obtain are shown in Table 1 and Table 2. From the t-test analysis (refer to Table 2), the result shows the total amount of perceived social support received by both local student (M = 5.46, SD = 0.96) and the out-of-state student (M = 4.94, SD = 1.06). The result achieve is significant as hometown affects the total social support received by the local student and out-of-state student, t (118) = 2.81, p à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤ 0.01. The only variable that was found no significant difference is the social support from family. Hence, hometown do not significantly affect students social support from family, where the mean of local student vs. out-of-state student is 5.45 vs. 5.12, t (118) = 1.50, p à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¥ 0.05. However, significant difference was found between local student and out-of-state student (M = 5.44, SD = 1.05 and M = 4.85, SD = 1.09) for social support from friend. This shows that hometown significantly affect students social support from friend, t (118) = 3.06, p à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤ 0.01. Thus, local student receive more social support from friends as compared to out-of-state student. As for social support from significant other, it is found to be significantly different also. It is showed in Table 2 that hometown significantly affect students social support from significant other as the mean obtain for out-of state student (M = 4.92, SD = 1.35) is lower than the mean for the local student (M = 5.42, SD = 1.26) and the t-value is as follow, t (118) = 2.08, p à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤ 0.01. Therefore, more social support from significant other is received by local student instead of the out-of-state student. Table 2 Local Student and Out-of-state Student Perceived Social Support from Family, Friend, and Significant Other Variable T df Hometown Out-of-state Social Support from family 1.50 118 5.12 (1.34) Social support from friend 3.06** 118 4.85 (1.09) Social support from significant other 2.08** 118 4.92 (1.35) Total perceived social support 2.81** 118 4.94 (1.06) Note. ** = p à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤ .01 Deviations appear in parentheses below means. Standard The results for correlation analysis are shown in Table 3. It is observed that there is a very significant relationship between friendliness and total perceived social support at r = .303, p à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤ 0.01 and according to Cohen (as cited in Pallant, 2007, p. 132) friendliness and total perceived social support has a moderate positive relationship. This means that the friendlier the students are, the more perceived social support. A coefficient determination is also obtained which is 9.18per cent of variance being shared. Therefore, friendliness affects about 9.2 percent of the variance found in perceived social support. As for friendliness and the subscale of social support from friend and from significant other, it is found that both subscales have a very significant relationship with friendliness (refer to Table 3). Therefore, the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) for friendliness and social support from friends is r = .367, p à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤ 0.01 and for friendliness and social support from significant other is r = .338, p à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤ 0.01, meaning that there is a moderate positive relationship between friendliness and social support from friend and also between friendliness and social support from significant others. Besides, it also tells that the more friendly one is, the more social support is received from friend and significant other. Despite the fact that, there is no significant relationship between friendliness and social support from family at r = .1.26, p à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¥ 0.05. Table 3 Pearson Correlation of Perceived Social Support and Friendliness Variable Social Support from Family Social Support from Friend Social Support from Significant Other Total Perceived Social Support Friendliness .126 .367** .338** .303** Social Support from Family .544** .557** .801** Social Support from Friend .902** .932** Social Support from Significant Other .896** ** p à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤ .01 (2-tailed) Discussion The main purpose of this study is to investigate whether local student receive more social support than out-of-state student. At the same time, the study also examines the relationship between friendliness and social support. The results that have been analyze indicates that the local student receive more social support from friend and significant other as compare to out-of-state student. But the unexpected finding was for the social support from family as it is not significant, this is comparable with Misra, Crist and Burant where they. From the result, assumption such that local student have the advantage to receive more social support because local student can easily adapt to their own country culture whereas it will be slightly more difficult for the student from out-of-state Similar prediction was achieve by Yue and Thao (2007). From the findings, it shows that out-of-state student receive lesser social support from friends and also lesser social support from significant other compare to local student. This result was also obtained by Demaray and Malecki (2002) showing that the Native American student perceived lesser social support while the ethnic student receive higher social support. Hence, the first hypothesis, local student receives more social support as compared to out-of-state student is accepted. The result is accurate because of the reliability and validity of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) used in the survey. The correlation test indicate that there is a very significant positive relationship between friendliness and social support and this means the friendlier one is, the more social support is gain. Similar result can see in Sullivan (1999) research. The benefit of this study is that every subscale is analyzed and a very significant result are attain for both social support from friend and significant other. The reliability and validity of the Friendliness Unfriendliness scale (SACRAL) also contribute to the strength of the study. Thus, the second hypothesis, that there is a significant positive relationship between friendliness and social support is accepted. The limitation of present study is that the data collected is a small sample size only, thus the study is less likely to be accurate since the amount for each local student and out-of-state student and gender are controlled which it will give 30 subject for each hometown and gender. Besides, another limitation is that the number of year out-of-state student have been leaving in Selangor or Kuala Lumpur, where they might have gotten used to the environmental and may be their family live in a nearby state or country, which is now very easy n convenient to travel back n fro. Hence, the student might feel that they have enough social support. Nevertheless, future study is to help find ways to make the study a better one is that collect a larger sample, try collecting data from a wider range and use random assignment instead of convenience sampling. Besides, the number of year the student have been in Malaysia should be place in the demographic form, so that we can tell how long the out-of-state student have been living in Malaysia and that variable can be control. In conclusion, both hypothesis are accepted, as a significant result is obtain and the mean shows that local student receive more social support than out-of-state student. Plus, a very significant positive relationship is found between friendliness and social support. Hence, the more friendly the individual the more social support is gain by the individual. The research should have include the number of year an individual have been living in Malaysia, so that the limitation can be remove and the result achieve will be more accurate.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Stop-Loss Policy Essay -- Government War Violence Essays

Stop-Loss Policy War has been around since the beginning of time. People have been asked to defend for their country and to die for their cause. But is the war that America is currently involved in, one of the times where people should be forced to die and stay overseas. The men and women who volunteered to fight for the country they love, are not being forced to stay longer then the original time they were supposed to stay, all thanks to President Bush’s â€Å"stop-loss policy† otherwise known as the â€Å"back-door draft.† The â€Å"stop-loss program† was introduced in order to counter act the number of men and women’s lives lost in the war and the number of people who have not been signing up to join. There are few arguments that are pro the â€Å"back-door draft† yet there are many more arguments that are against the policy. This paper will explain why the reasons why the policy is something that will just destroy America, such as people being forced to say in war, their families being affected, the volunteer military becoming a non volunteer, and even what it has done to some of the soldiers. President Bush put the â€Å"stop-loss policy† into effect giving the military the power to keep military personnel for up to twenty-four months longer, in a combat zone or in a high-risk area. If a soldier’s military group is being shipped over to fight the War in Iraq, then the soldier would have to go with them as well. It does not matter if the soldier only has a month left, it would not matter and he would still have to go with him. According to what is written in the policy, â€Å"The policy is designed to assist in meeting manpower requirements for future operations, and will, therefore, evolve to remain relevant to future operations, and will, therefore, evolve to remain relevant to future developments in mission requirements and our involvement in current operations.† (Maradmin) Since the beginning of American there has been a draft for people to join the military. During the Vietnam War (1973) the draft finally became something of the past that is until now. The draft has just changed a little to fit with the changing of times. Instead of civilians being forced to go and fight for their country, the soldier’s who have already given up so much for their country are being forced to stay. How can America claim to have a fully volunteer military when ... ...e vent of war, my enlistment in the armed forces continues six months after the was ends unless it is discontinued by the president.† (Wagner) Even though the soldiers are told these things, is it still ok for the government to be asking this of them? Yes they have previous knowledge, but something like this should not happen. The government needs to realize that they need to not start these things, if they are not going to have enough military to support all of it. In conclusion, the men in women who are protecting the lives of all the citizens in the united states, are being forced to stay in Iraq or Afghanistan, well beyond their discharged dates, for the government who was not very well planned out. The soldiers however have been fighting back, and not just listening to what the government tells them. Although some people think that since soldiers sign up, and have previous knowledge of the issue, that it would be fine, but that is far from the truth. Each member of the military is a person, and deserves the same rights as everyone else. The government has taken the all-volunteer army, and has turned it into a different kind of draft army, a â€Å"back-door draft†.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Self Directed

Summary on Self-directed Learning and Culture: a study on Malay adult learners. This journal talks about the relationship between SDL and the learning culture focusing on the Malay adult learners. The element of culture plays an important role in adult learning and it has been noted that self-directed learning is the central concept in the study and practice of adult education.Self-directed learning is related to the learners’ culture, learning style personality traits motivation and readiness to accept responsibility and these characteristics emphasis on the individuality of the learners in any learning environment will come to consideration. The present study intends to investigate the influence of the Malay culture on self-directed learning among Malay adult learners which could bridge the gap between the Malay culture and self-directed learning by providing breakthrough into Malay adult learners.Thus add to the knowledge regarding adult learners, and also help to generate better understanding of the Malay adult learners and the influence culture has in their learning process. Developing self-directed learning readiness will help to escalate the process of becoming life-long learners among adult learners. Cultural influences on the different levels of self-directed learning readiness on Malay adult learners were discussed. Does culture have any influence on self-directed learning of the Malay adult learners? Does culture have any impact on the self-directed learning of the Malay adult learners?Self-directed learning is part and parcel of the psychological and social development of adulthood. Self-directed learners are said to demonstrate greater awareness of their responsibility in making learning meaningful and monitoring them, thus making them more effective learners and social beings. Self-directed learning is an approach where learners are motivated to assume personal responsibility and collaborative control of the cognitive and contextual process in constructing meaningful and worthwhile learning outcomes.One of the findings indicated that self directed learning readiness appears to be positively associated with work experience and postulated that this could be due to the fact that respondents have learned to become more self-directed as they accumulate work experience. A study on the relationship between personality traits and self directed learning of undergraduates indicated that there is a positive and strong correlation between personality traits and self-directed learning. Finally, the findings from the study have indicated that culture has a role in the self-directed learning readiness of adult learners.

Friday, January 3, 2020

How Buddhism Has Changed Essay - 1643 Words

How Buddhism Has Changed Albert Einstein once said, â€Å"Buddhism has the characteristics of what would be expected in a cosmic religion for the future: it transcends a personal God, avoids dogmas and theology; it covers both the natural spiritual, and it is based on a religious sense aspiring from the experience of all things, natural and spiritual, as a meaningful unity.† I though this quote was an interesting beginning into seeing how this ancient religion changed over the course of its existence. I feel that Buddhism has changed over time but has maintained that core teaching that it had with the early Indians and with the Theravada teachings. Mahayana just happens to be the more loose teachings of the Buddha. The term used in†¦show more content†¦The second Noble Truth is that suffering itself has a cause. At the simplest level, this may be said to be desire; but the theory was fully worked out in the complex doctrine of dependent origination, or pratityas amutpada, which explains the interrelationship of all reality in terms of an unbroken chain of causation (Conze). The third Noble Truth, however, is that this chain can be broken, that suffering can cease. The Buddhists called this end of suffering nirvana and conceived of it as a cessation of rebirth, an escape from samsara. Finally, the fourth Noble Truth is that a way exists through which this cessation can be brought about: the practice of the noble Eightfold Path. This combines ethical and disciplinary practices, training in concentration and meditation, and the development of enlightened wisdom, all thought to be necessary. if practiced diligently, it would lead to enlightenment. The first of the Eightfold Path is right understanding (also known as the right view). The actual word understanding is not suppose to mean just an intellectual or a conceptual comprehension but an understanding that is developed over time through experience. The second is the right thought or the right intention. Here the Buddha advises us to rid our thoughts of three things, lust, ill-will and cruelty. By riddingShow MoreRelatedThe Religion Of The Hajj1734 Words   |  7 Pages Throughout time, many aspects of life have changed in drastic ways. One common thing around the world, no matter where you are, that has evolved is over time is religion. One religion that has changed has been Islam. Something that unites all Muslims is a common belief they have; The Five Pillars. These Pillars allow the Muslim community to become one regardless of their social statue. One of the most changed of these would be the Pilgrimage to Mecca. Also known as the Hajj, â€Å" Every adult MuslimRead MoreSiddhartha Gautama, Or The Buddha1045 Words   |  5 Pages Siddhartha Gautama, or the Buddha, founded Buddhism once he reached a state of dharma at age twenty-nine. Once he founded Buddhism, he travelled the world trying to spread his philosophy. Buddha preached that the biggest hallucination in life is the tangible world. While spreading Buddhism, he converted a small portion of South Asia. Buddhism was developed throughout South Asia by the main political powers of AÃ…â €ºoka and the Tang Dynasty. AÅ›oka, the Mauryan Dynasty’s third king ruled the empireRead MoreRadical Changes On The Views Of Buddhism1415 Words   |  6 PagesChanges on the Views of Buddhism in One Century As time progresses, our views and perspective on certain topics may start to change, in order to adapt to our dynamic society. An example of this change, is the different ways Buddha has been portrayed over the generations. 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Siddhartha wantedRead MoreEssay on Budism by Huston Smith1605 Words   |  7 PagesBuddhism As a college student that has lived and grown up in western New York, I do not have too much experience with the other religions of the world. I have grown up a Christian Protestant my whole life, and I am a firm believer in my religion. Soon after reading the chapter on Buddhism in Huston Smith’s book The World’s Religions, I came to understand and respect the Buddhist religion. I came to learn who the Buddha as a man really was, and the steps he took in becoming a religious icon. IRead MoreSimilarities And Differences Between Mahayana And Two Major Branches Of Buddhism1281 Words   |  6 Pages In Buddhism, the two major branches are the Theravada and Mahayana. Theravada is known as the â€Å"tradition of the elders.† Mahayana is called the â€Å"large vehicle.† Mahayana Buddhist came about after the first Buddhist council split. 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As much as I want to talk about theRead MoreSimilarities Between Hinduism And Buddhism948 Words   |  4 PagesBoth Hinduism and Buddhism came from the region called India. Hinduism was the dominant one in the subcontinent, while Buddhism had to flee to other regions to spread its belief to the people. The creation of Hinduism will eventually give birth to Buddhism later on. Even though both â€Å"religions† came from the same region, they have some similarities and differences between them. Hinduism from the start was a combination of different beliefs or ceremonies from the Indus Valley Civilization. All of

Thursday, December 26, 2019

The Power of Sympathy Essay - 1179 Words

In the typical slave narrative, the intentions are fairly known. The author has written with a certain willingness that would appeal to the reader emotionally. There is a message behind every tear, or in this case, every page. The slave narrative was used to give others an insight of what they had endured. Grabbing the reader’s sympathy, they also now had the reader’s support ( This reasoning could be seen in several narratives from that off Jacobs, Douglass, and Equiano. The theme of their slave narratives was generally to gain the sympathy of readers and promote their rights as humans. In the Narrative Of The Life Of Olaudah Equiano, Equiano starts right out in the beginning with his story. He starts out with introducing his†¦show more content†¦African Americans noted the hypocrisy that sometimes characterized white Christianity, pointing out the contradiction between Gods Word and slaveholders cruelty and inhumanity ( Having used one of the most common things around them, God, Equiano now was making a very bold statement. Not only was his statement heard, but Jacobs’ as well. Harriet Jacobs’ slave narrative was quite the powerful message as well. Not only was she speaking from the vantage point as a slave; Harriet had the task of speaking on behalf of female slaves. It was quite astounding that both slave narratives had almost the same sentence. In Jacobs’ In The Life Of A Slave Girl, Jacobs makes the statement that, â€Å"My mistress had taught me the precepts of God’s Word: â€Å"Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.† â€Å"Whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye even so unto them†Ã¢â‚¬  (Jacobs 283). This is now twice that these slave narratives have enticed readers with a biblical approach. This works well with grabbing their sympathy for their fight to freedom. The slave narratives are using the lessons they were forced to learn, by a religion they were forced to adopt, and now have noticed the ignorance and used it to their benefit. The bible teaches to love one another; however, those same Chri stians are involved in slavery. Giving the reader an even further insight through the eyes of a female slave just was the icing on a sympathy piece of cake—figuratively speaking. HarrietShow MoreRelatedThe Power of Sympathy990 Words   |  4 PagesThe Power of Sympathy The Power of Sympathy by William Hill Brown is a narrative to teach young ladies about the importance of education, the fatal consequences of seduction, and the proper instruction women should have. This narrative was written to scare women away from wayward love and more towards rational love. It gives us insight to the heartache of women who fell for wayward love and their consequences. Brown uses education, seduction, and the proper instruction forRead MoreHannah Webster Foster s The Coquette ( 1797 ) And William Hill Brown s The Power Of Sympathy Essay1449 Words   |  6 PagesHannah Webster Foster’s The Coquette (1797) and William Hill Brown’s The Power of Sympathy (1789) are epistolary novels that outline the inevitable perils and consequences (for women) of carelessly becoming a victim of male seduction. These provocative novels allow readers to enter a sexual private sphere of society, one that may have been deemed taboo, through letters depicting the art of seduction. Women were expected to subscribe to the societal expectations of appropriate female behavior. InRead MoreEssay about Comparing The Awakening and Their Eyes Are Watching God793 Words   |  4 PagesWhen looking at many novels the reader tends to look at whether or not the author has sympathy with the characters. Within the two stories The Awakening and Their Eyes Were Watching God, the author has sym pathy for one of the characters but not the other. The two stories both have main characters that struggle with their own existence in life, but in The Awakening the author had more sympathy for Edna. In Their Eyes Were Watching God the author tends to be non-sympathetic toward all the male charactersRead MoreEssay about Sophocles Antigone: A Great Tragedy1073 Words   |  5 PagesPolyneices to conquer Thebes, and his attempt is a utter failure. Polyneices decision to attack Thebes dramatically alters the future course of Thebes. Polyneicess attack removes Eteocles from power and promotes Creon to power. Creon believes he is acting in the best interest of the state by establishing his power as king of Thebes. Creons decree preventing any citizen from mourning or burying Polyneices is establishing his authority. Creon creates this edict because of Polyneices traitorous actsRead MoreEssay on The Crowing of Richard the Third and the Turning Point904 Words   |  4 PagesIII ma rks the turning point from his rise into power to his demise. Up until he becomes king, Richard is the underdog – albeit, a ruthless and evil one. Thus far, the entire play has been focused on Richard’s attempts to assume power and seize the throne. However, once he becomes crowned King Richard, the focus of the play shifts to Richard’s attempts to maintain power and hold the throne. Essentially, the challenge for Richard is no longer gaining power, but keeping it. It is this new struggle thatRead MorePresentation of Phaedra and Nurse in Hippolytus982 Words   |  4 Pagesthemselves and are portrayed as virtuous people, yet the contrast is their different perceptions of being virtuous. Yet sympathy wise Phaedra attracts a lot more sympathy than Nurse as Euripides portrays as the start of the play how these events are completely out of mortal control yet the characters reactions to them isn’t. Therefore when Phaedra starves herself we, the audience, feel sympathy as she is feeling unwanted passion for Hippolytus that she can’t control. So the only way for it to end in her eyesRead More Cause and Effect Essay - The Causes of America’s Social Problems1016 Words   |  5 Pagesapathy, and greed. The ultimate remedy for social problems therefore must confront all three root causes. It does little good to just run down the street shouting share the rent! or stop war!. Uttering a slogan does no good unless it arouses sympathy. As an example of the interplay between ignorance, apathy, and greed, consider the problem of pollution. Suppose the most efficient preventative is a pollution charge based on the damage caused by each pollutant. However, the government regulatesRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Macbeth Vs. Othello1006 Words   |  5 Pagesbecause Iago causes his fall, not his own actions. In Macbeth, by Shakespeare, Macbeth is told by three witches that he will one day rise to power and become king. Macbeth decides to believe the witches, and all of the prophecies they tell him throughout the tragedy. Macbeth kills King Duncan, his best friend, and other innocent people in order to gain power and remain king. Macbeth is killed by Macduff at the end of the play, when the â€Å"forest† of Birnam walked to his castle. In Othello, by ShakespeareRead MoreExplore Shakespeares Presentation of the Three Great Leaders: Caesar, Antony and Cleopatra, Through the Changing Fortunes of Acts Iii and Iv. Explain How the Balance of Audience Sympathy Shifts1721 Words   |  7 PagesDuring the scenes depicting the Battle of Actium, Shakespeares presentation of Octavius Caesar, Mark Antony and Cleopatra cause the balance of audience sympathy to change between the three great leaders. Audience sympathy never lies by any real amount with Caesar, and in Acts III and IV, the audience feels increasingly alienated from him. This is largely due to his calculated, ruthless style of leadership, which becomes more evident during the battle. Caesar judges wisely, and is successful becauseRead MoreThe Nature Of Human Nature900 Words   |  4 PagesPeople are capable of sympathy by nature and its enables social unity, in other words identity. But to be clear, the word sympathy in Smith’s work is used not as a moral sixth sense but more in the way of modern empathy. Empathy as an ability of willingness to relate relates someone’s feelings/emotions and experience similar perceptions. In the theory by nature design human beings are looking for common backgrounds because they want to share fellow feelings since mutual sympathy is pleasurable. Moreover